Extraction of aggregates from the land by quarrying is the largest element of supply.
Minerals operations can be considered in three stages:
Pre-operation/pre-extraction stage - during which a suitable site is identified and evaluated and applications for necessary consents are submitted by the minerals company, and applications are considered and, if appropriate, approved by the regulatory authorities
Operational/extraction stage – during which mineral is extracted, processed and delivered to the market
Post-operational stage – during which the site is rehabilitated ready for a suitable subsequent use
Environmental Management and Benefits
Extraction gives rise to concerns by communities and fears for management of the environment but much can be done to minimise these through good design, operational considerations and management. This section examines concerns due to, and control of:
It also looks at adverse effects on biodiversity, geodiversity and the cultural heritage as well as positive gains for these that can be secured through good site management and restoration.